We frequently perform things for reasons other than sheer enjoyment, i.e. we are extrinsically driven. Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, is not created equal. Learn what extrinsic motivation is, how it differs from intrinsic motivation, and how to use it effectively.
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What Is Motivation
The underlying causes, impulses, and wants that give rise to human action are referred to as motivation. It motivates us to take action in order to achieve our objectives.
People act for a variety of reasons. Motivation is classified by psychologists into two types: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.
What is Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation relates to performing something for a separate end, such as obtaining rewards or avoiding punishment, rather than for its intrinsic delight.
We frequently do things because they are required or because we want to gain something else, rather than because we like them. We are extrinsically driven to do so when this occurs.
Examples of Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic inspiration could be found all around us.
- A student studies in order to satisfy his or her parents.
- A child performs tasks in order to receive an additional allowance.
- Workers put in extra hours to earn a bonus.
In these cases, the extrinsic motivators are not the activity’s inherent delight or satisfaction.
Extrinsic Motivation Can Involve Internal or External Rewards
The intrinsic rewards drive intrinsic motivation.
Is extrinsic motivation thus created by extrinsic rewards?
Yes, but there’s more to it than that.
The topic of motivation can be perplexing at times. Extrinsic and extrinsic motivation are sometimes used interchangeably in the media and even in certain scholarly journals.
However, in psychology, the terms external and extrinsic are not equivalent. Internal and intrinsic are not the same thing.
Internal benefits come from inside, whilst external rewards come from without.
For example, if a child performs schoolwork to escape punishment, the behavior is prompted by something outside of the individual. And he is driven extrinsically since he is doing it for a reason other than delight. As a result, this child is driven to accomplish homework both externally and intrinsically.
If, on the other hand, a child studies because he wants to earn excellent marks so that he may eventually go to college, then his motivation is generated inwardly. He is extrinsically driven, though, because he is not doing the school task for the sake of doing it. In this situation, the child is motivated both internally and outside.
As a result, whereas intrinsic motivation is fueled by internal benefits, extrinsic motivation can be fueled by either internal or external incentives.
To prevent misunderstanding, internal incentives might be referred to as psychologicalal benefits and exterior rewards as physical prizes such as a gold star.
Prizes, for example, usually result in extrinsic incentives.
However, psychologicalal incentives can lead to either intrinsic or extrinsic drives. Intrinsic motivation is created by some psychologicalal benefits, such as a sensation of satisfaction. Extrinsic motivation is created by other psychologicalal incentives, such as a desire to attend college.
Mixing Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Can Backfire
External incentives are one of the most frequent strategies to encourage individuals. Researchers have discovered, however, that attempts to boost extrinsic incentives can occasionally backfire.
In a classic experiment, researchers rewarded children who already demonstrated an interest in sketching with “magic markers.” When these children’s were eventually permitted to play freely, they showed little interest in using the markers again. The children’s who had not been awarded, on the other hand, continued to draw with the markers.
When a person is already intrinsically driven to accomplish something, using an extrinsic reward might reduce that intrinsic motivation. This is referred to as the overjustification effect.
The Importance Of Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation is frequently less desired than intrinsic motivation, according to decades of study. Extrinsically motivated persons have lower levels of engagement, tenacity, and inventiveness. 4.
Extrinsic motivation not only interferes with intrinsic motivation (overjustification effect), but it is also ineffective in motivating others.
Should we completely disregard external motivation?
Despite the disadvantages, extrinsic motivation remains essential, particularly in school and the job.
Not every activity is pleasant for everyone, and not everyone can be enthusiastic about the same subject at the same time. As a result, in the lack of intrinsic motivation, we rely on extrinsic incentives to complete tasks.
Extrinsic motivation comes in four varieties, and not all of them are created equal.
Four Types Of Extrinsic Motivation
According to Self-Determination Theory, the form of extrinsic motivation varies depending on the circumstance.
As a result, even if a person is not intrinsically driven, understanding which sort of extrinsic motivation is at work allows you to inspire them successfully.
The four forms of extrinsic motivation are as follows:
External regulation entails acting in response to an external demand or receiving an externally imposed reward.
As an example, consider a kid who works hard in order to earn a good grade in order to obtain a gift from his parents. Although the behavior is deliberate, it is controlled by an outside source. This activity is then externally regulated.
An externally governed behavior is perceived as controlled rather than autonomous by the person.
External regulation is the least desired kind of motivation and is often employed in opposition to intrinsic motivation.
Introjection is defined as acknowledging the reason for doing something but not completely accepting it.
A student could spend a lot of time studying piano for performance because she feels that if she doesn’t do well, she won’t be able to play properly, and others would look down on her.
Because introjected behavior is behaviored as a result of internal demand, this sort of regulation is nevertheless regarded as regulated.
alleviate shame or worry, boost ego or pride, or keep self-esteem or a sense of self-worth
Although the individual has accepted the activity’s aim as required and the motive is internal (psychologicalal), it is still not perceived as a “free choice.”
Introjected motivation is nonetheless undesirable since the behavior is governed or compelled by internal forces rather than being self-directed.
Regulation Through Identification
This type of extrinsic drive is less controlling.
Identification denotes that a person consciously appreciates a goal and considers the action to be personally significant. They don’t do it because they feel obligated to.
As an example, consider a kid who works very hard to prepare for the SAT exam since getting into college is highly important to him. Getting into college is a goal that you set for yourself. Despite the fact that the behavior is extrinsically motivated, it remains largely autonomous.
It is different if a student does it because they believe they “should” go to college like everyone else and would feel like a failure if they do not (introduced regulation), or because their parents are pressing them to do so.
Integration happens when a person has completely accepted the reason for action, i.e., when the cause has been investigated and determined to be compatible with their own values and requirements. The activity is then self-initiated. It is self-contained and not governed by an outside force.
Despite being extrinsic, integrated motivation is the best form of extrinsic motivation since it bears many similarities with intrinsic motivation. Some studies even refer to integrated regulation as intrinsic since the subject has totally absorbed the extrinsic reason.
When intrinsic motivation isn’t an option, integrated regulation is the next best thing.
Best Ways To Motivate Extrinsically
The four forms of extrinsic motivation are located on a continuum of autonomy, ranging from least autonomous (externally controlled) to most autonomous (integrated).
To achieve integrated regulation, one must believe in the objective of the action and feel free to select it.
Five more elements that might lead to integrated regulation are as follows:
Competence – the capacity to succeed – and relatedness – the sense of being linked to people
Here are some things you may do to encourage someone who lacks intrinsic motivation:
Find Proper Reasons
To be motivated, a person must believe in the worth of an action. As a result, give excellent arguments. Good reasons are those that are in line with the individual’s beliefs and requirements.
Help a person feel competent by starting the action a notch or two above their present ability, so that it is both hard and doable. Gradually increase the person’s limit as they complete the assignment. Along the process, give genuine appreciation and helpful comments while avoiding criticism.
Connect With Other Motivated People
People are driven by an innate need to feel a feeling of belonging and connection to others. Do the activity with someone you can relate to and who is passionate about it. Find a companion, a mentor, or join a team, for example.
Extrinsic incentive does not always trump intrinsic motivation. External rewards may work in the short run to help people stay engaged on a task. However, in order to get greater results, strive for integrated regulation by identifying the correct reason, developing a sense of competence, and feeling linked.
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