We all want to be the best parents we can be for our children, but there is frequently contradicting advice on how to raise a confident, caring, and successful child. It is critical to focus on balancing priorities, juggling obligations, and rapidly switching between the demands of your children, other family members, and oneself during the circus act of parenting.
Modern parents have access to the entire internet and do not rely on a single authority figure. It’s difficult to know who or what to believe. We’ll speak about how to assist your child to develop into the person you want them to be without losing yourself in the process.
What is Extinction
Extinction in psychology refers to the fading and disappearance of previously acquired behavior by connection with another event. This means that a conditioned response is diminished, and the target behavior finally ceases to exist and becomes extinct. Typically, this is achieved by removing the unconditioned stimulus.
Examples of Extinction
- A child already discovered that throwing a tantrum at the supermarket earns him candy. When Mom stops giving in to the tantrums, the child throws less and fewer tantrums until he ultimately quits. The learned tantrums have vanished.
- A dog has previously learnt that leaping up on its owner results in a reward. When the owner stops rewarding the dog for leaping, the dog ultimately stops jumping.
- A student earlier discovered that interrupting the class would result in more attention from the teacher. When the instructor stops giving him negative attention, he stops being disruptive.
See also: Toddler Temper Tantrums: When To Worry
Extinction in Classical Conditioning
When an association is formed between a physiologically important natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus, classical conditioning occurs.
The natural stimulus is classified as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) since it does not need any training to elicit a reaction. The neutral stimulus is transformed into a conditioned stimulus (CS), and the involuntary reaction is transformed into a conditioned response (CR) (CR).
The most famous example is the case of Pavlov (classical conditioning)’s dogs. Every time Ivan Pavlov (classical conditioning) (classical conditioning) fed his dogs, he rang a bell. They eventually began to salivate whenever they heard the sound, regardless of whether or not they got food. Natural salivation evolved into a conditioned reaction.
Extinction happens in classical conditioning when the conditioned stimulus is administered repeatedly without being matched with the unconditioned stimulus. Over time, the learnt behavior becomes less frequent and finally ceases, and the conditioned stimulus returns to normal.
Pavlov (classical conditioning)’s dogs, for example, progressively ceased salivating at the sound of the bell after Pavlov (classical conditioning) rang it numerous times without delivering food.
Extinction in Operant Conditioning
The process of connecting a natural stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) with reinforcement or punishment (conditioned stimulus) in order to modify a voluntary behavior is known as operant conditioning (conditioned response).
The weakening and final cessation of the voluntary, conditioned reaction is referred to as operational extinction.
A child, for example, may link the sound of a microwave with her favorite food and run into the kitchen. She eventually quits using the microwave after Dad uses it numerous times without making the snack.
The Road to Extinction Can Be Bumpy
It takes time for a species to go extinct. And it isn’t always simple or “clean-cut.”
During the extinction process, an extinction burst is a brief increase in the frequency, length, or amplitude of the conditioned behavior. During this time, the extinct behavior is more likely to be repeated in an attempt to reintroduce the unconditioned stimulus.
For example, a parent may try to eliminate a children’s difficult behavior by using differential attention or differential reinforcement – increasing attention for good behavior and decreasing attention for negative behavior. However, the kid may get more agitated in an attempt to reclaim his or her parents’ attention.
Extinct Behavior May Come Back After Extinction
Extinction does not mean the behavior is extinct. The unexpected reappearance of a previously extinct habit is referred to as spontaneous recovery.
Extinction burst can also lead to extinction-induced aggressiveness, in which the person intensifies the extinct behavior or violently engages in a new undesirable activity in order to recoup the lost reward.
What Influences Resistance to Extinction
The reinforcement schedules have a major impact on how resistant a learnt behavior is to extinction. A continuous schedule reinforces the conditioned response every time, whereas a partial schedule only reinforces the conditioned response portion of the time.
Behaviour learned using a partial reinforcement schedule is more resistant to extinction than behavior learned through continuous reinforcement. This is known as the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect (PREE).
Gambling is a good example of the resistance to extinction characteristic. Gambling addiction, particularly slot machine addiction, is notoriously difficult to overcome. A gambler will win part of the time, but not all of the time. This partial reinforcement improves the resistance to addiction extinction substantially.
Context is another aspect that impacts extinction. Context refers to anything in the surrounding environment. It might be the setting, the location, or the presence of other items.
Assume that a target behavior is obtained in context A and that the extinction process occurs in the same context. After extinction is complete, which means an individual no longer reacts to the conditioned stimulus, providing the conditioned stimulus in a different context may result in the spontaneous return of the extinct behavior.
Extinction can be improved by doing it in numerous contexts, which enhances the likelihood that cues present during extinction will be present in different situations.
See also: Schedules Of Reinforcement
Extinction Doesn’t Erase Previous Learning
Psychologists currently feel that extinction is not an unlearning process because of the potential of spontaneous return and dependence on context. Rather, it is a type of fresh learning (Spontaneous Recovery) known as extinction learning.
Rather than deleting prior learning, the person develops a new link between the conditioned stimulus and the absence of unconditioned stimuli.
Extinction in Psychology
Extinction is a complex process in which behavioral and neural responses are intertwined. We do not have a comprehensive grasp of the process. Scientists are constantly learning about the many components at work.
It might be tough for parents to extinguish unwanted behavior in their children. However, before concluding that “my child is stubborn” or “I have a strong-willed child,” use the extinction process consistently in diverse contexts. Patience and practise may pay dividends.
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